Light painting spirals over the water

  • Colao flags improvements in microwave backhaul technology.
  • CEO wants less dependence on fibre for 5G rollout.
  • Enterprise IoT seen as one of biggest 5G opportunities in medium term.
  • Germany expands role in Group 5G testing through new Düsseldorf lab.

Vittorio Colao, Chief Executive (CEO) of Vodafone, spelled out what he thought were the main cost-reduction and revenue-boosting benefits of 5G. His observations, made during the Group’s full-year earnings presentation for FY17-18, largely covered familiar territory. Improved spectral efficiency and evermore sprightly latency times, compared to 4G, were predictably flagged as 5G plus points.

There was, however, a noticeably large emphasis on placed microwave technology as a viable backhaul alternative to fibre, both for 5G and faster 4G cell sites. Along with other cost-reduction possibilities, such as spectrum re-farming and re-use of existing site grids to support macro rollout of next-gen technology, topped up by massive MIMO (massive input, massive output) antennae to generate extra capacity, Colao maintained that Vodafone guidance on capital expenditure (capex) would not be derailed by 5G. He was at pains to “reassure” analysts that capex will remain in the ‘mid-teens’, as a percentage of revenue, going forward (see separate report).

[5G] technology is supporting that, to stay where we are [on capex]. Of course, we are a little bit right [above] of 15% if you include CPEs [customer premises equipment] and everything else, and a little bit less of 15% if you don’t. But that is why we have comfort with our medium-term guidance.” – Colao.

On the revenue side of the 5G business case, Colao highlighted the importance of enterprise Internet of Things (IoT). An IoT focus suggests any 5G progress on the top line, according to Vodafone, is likely to be incremental. There seems little expectation among Vodafone executives that 5G will pave the way for entry into entirely new markets and services – at least not in the short- and mid-term.

Unlike top brass at arch-rival Deutsche Telekom, Colao did not show much enthusiasm for widespread deployment of fixed wireless access (FWA) as a 5G use-case (Deutsche Telekomwatch, #73). He deemed FWA as suitable in only “selective” deployments.

In certain parts of certain countries, it will make sense to do [FWA]. In others, it won’t. IoT instead is a real opportunity.” – Colao.

Microwave heats up

Colao argued that Vodafone did not need to roll out fibre backhaul everywhere, even in dense areas, if ‘conditions’ were right for cheaper microwave technology. Pointing out that microwave links had “improved a lot” over the last five or six years, he chose to emphasise latency times – rather than capacity capabilities, which also appear to be impressive (see below) – to illustrate performance improvements at the higher end of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Using E-band airwaves in the 80GHz range (71GHz-76GHz and 81GHz-86GHz), Colao talked effusively about latency time-per-hop – the transmission distance between two antennae. He claimed this had been reduced to less than one millisecond. He further ventured, no doubt briefed by Vodafone’s technical experts, that latency times on microwave links could reach 0.25 milliseconds, and perhaps dip to as low as 0.05 milliseconds.

The problem with microwave is always the hops. The more hops you have, the more you have latency. You accumulate the latency. The service becomes bad. With the new microwave, the latency on the hops is actually really reduced, so as long as you can have straight-shooting with microwave, we will depend less – not more – on fibre in the future, which is good.” – Colao.

There was no sense Colao thought microwave better than fibre, performance-wise, but rather he pitched it as a useful and potentially cost-effective alternative when circumstances were not right for the laying of fibre lines. The CEO presumably had in mind difficult-to-access ducts, or prohibitively high-cost leased fibre lines, as problems that could prompt Vodafone to turn to microwave.

If you have fibre and good conditions, why not? But if you don’t have fibre and good conditions, microwave would be very effective.” – Colao.

  • It remains unclear how dramatic a shift Colao’s comments represent in Vodafone’s networks strategy. The Gigabit Vodafone vision, laid out by Group Chief Technology Officer Johan Wibergh in May 2016, envisaged significant fibre deployment (and leasing) to support 5G, saying the Group would fibre-enable more than 95% of European urban sites (cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants) by 2020, up from around 69% when the strategy was announced. The plan laid out no specific microwave rollout ambitions in other areas, however.

Huawei testing programme looks to have gone well

Colao’s comments suggest a win for Group Technology research activity around microwave as an enabler for 5G.

Vodafone and Huawei Technologies have been testing E-band-based microwave as a potential 5G bear-er since at least 2016, with trials highlighted in Romania, Turkey, and the UK (Vodafonewatch, #142, #146, and #149).

In February 2018, the two partners completed lab tests (seemingly held in Italy) that showed traditional IP microwave links were worthy of consideration for 4G and 5G backhaul (Vodafonewatch, #163). The tests apparently revealed it was possible to deliver up-to-2.7Gbps capacity from a single IP microwave link, by aggregating twin 112MHz channels. Enhancements made by Huawei engineers to the modem and RF unit enabled the testing team to push latency down to 50 microseconds, the equivalent of 0.05 milliseconds.

No big bang: 5G on same growth trajectory as 4G

Colao projected that 5G, as in the case of 4G, will take around eight years to achieve 50%-device penetration from the time when standards were set – December 2017, when the 3rd Generation Partnership Project ratified the first 5G New Radio (NR) specifications. If correct, this means it will not be until the mid-2020s before 50%-device penetration is reached. Colao suggested traction might be higher at that point if a variety of mass-market 5G handsets are available, but that was something he could not foresee in the eight-year time-scale.

Colao portrayed the length of time needed before 5G gets into full swing as a downside. He reckoned the Group can “do an excellent job with the 4G and 4.5G capability” in the meantime, so complementing nascent 5G rollout. A major concern for operators is that 5G customers do not suffer enormous downswings in performance when moving into non-5G areas.

Predictably, the onset of 5G will not see a change in Vodafone’s desire for control over mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) – several of which have been forced off Vodafone’s platform in recent years, with Group leadership taking direct control over any new con-tracts (Vodafonewatch, passim). Colao argued it will be harder for MVNOs to make a competitive impact in 5G. He reasoned that 5G was much more complicated to manage than plain-vanilla 4G, and that many MVNOs were “nervous” about the prospect of handling the inevitable surge in 5G demand. “Of course, some [MVNOs] will be there. Others are less comfortable”, said Colao.

Düsseldorf and Milan: a tale of two 5G cities

In two-to-three years, from end-2017, Colao anticipated the first city-wide deployments of 5G. He referenced Milan as a likely candidate to be among the Group’s 5G frontrunners (see below). The initial 5G target areas in all cities, added Colao, will be “dense urban areas”. Only aggressive moves by competitors to roll out elsewhere will alter the urban-first strategy, indicated the CEO. “We will, of course, respond to competition”, he said.

  • Working with 3.6GHz-3.8GHz (3.7GHz) spectrum made available by Italy’s Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico, Vodafone Italy (VfIt) has already made much of a 5G testing programme taking place in its ‘home city’ of Milan (Vodafonewatch, #158 and passim). Nokia and Huawei are high-profile partners.
  • Nokia said its first 5G site installations in Milan were completed in December 2017, and a demonstration of high-definition video over pre-standard standalone 5G was successfully performed on a live 5G site in the northern city’s Cadorna Square. The project employed Nokia’s AirScale massive MIMO antenna, which supports both 4G and 5G, and AirScale baseband upgraded to support 5G. The supplier’s Cloud Packet Core is also being used.
  • Huawei claims to have made 5G progress in Milan surrounding signal propagation, capacity, and latency (Vodafonewatch, #160). On what VfIt and Huawei claimed was a “full end-to-end” (E2E) test network, the two companies put into action a decoupling technique to improve the signal range of 3.7GHz spectrum. Instead of using a single frequency band to communicate between a smartphone and the network, different frequency bands were used: one for the downlink, and another for the uplink. VfIt and Huawei also claimed to have achieved the first 5G data connection in Italy as part of the Milan tests. Using massive MIMO technology, the two said they clocked up speeds of up-to-2.7Gbps using 3.7GHz spectrum. Latency rates were apparently “just over” one millisecond.

Germany is another key focal point of Group efforts on 5G testing. In May 2018, Vodafone Germany (VfD) opened a 5G Lab in Düsseldorf. As part of the lab’s remit, next-generation devices will be put through their paces before deployment in Germany and other Vodafone markets.

The scope of testing, said VfD, en-compassed smartphones, tablets, and IoT sensors. The lab purports to run a “real 5G network”, supplied by Ericsson.

The 5G Lab will apparently launch a certification programme, rubber-stamping devices deemed sufficiently robust to be worthy of the 5G moniker. It was not clear if other operators, besides Vodafone, might avail themselves of the lab’s testing and certification services sometime in the future.

In terms of technology innovation, beamforming techniques based on massive MIMO – capable of arranging up-to-128 antennae in the “tiniest space” – are being tested in the lab, again in cooperation with Erics-son. VfD said it will launch the technology in “numerous locations” throughout Germany during 2018, with an emphasis on rural areas. VfD believes mobile-based 5G beam technology, which more precisely targets users with greater capacity, can be used in combination with the GigaCube – the OpCo’s fixed wireless substitution product – as a replacement for “slow” DSL lines. VfD said the new technology was already up and running in Langenhain, a village near Frankfurt.

Robotics, exploiting 5G latency times of under one millisecond (said to be “quicker than the human nervous system”), is another area of focus for the 5G Lab.

Vorsprung durch 5G testing: Düs-seldorf and Aldenhoven working hand in hand

Complementing the 5G Lab in Düsseldorf is VfD’s 5G Mobility Lab at the Aldenhoven Testing Centre, which provides an urban test environment for automated and networked driving (Vodafonewatch, #153). The plan appears to be that both labs will have scope to cooperate on 5G testing before products are signed off for the Vodafone portfolio.

VfD’s 5G work in Düsseldorf may well tie in with its Future Lab, also based in its home city, which is focused on Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) technology. Established in February 2017, the Future Lab tests network equipment from Ericsson, Huawei, and Nokia (Vodafonewatch, #156 and #160). VfD plans to make NB-IoT commercially available in 13 cities during 2018, each using the 800MHz frequency band.

Image: Jamison McAndie / Unsplash

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About

About Vodafonewatch

Report: #165
Published: May/June 2018
Next report: July 2018
For more information visit: Vodafonewatch

Contents

EXECUTIVE BRIEF

Q4 FY17-18

Management update

Read dials up cost control as Med challenges revive [p6]

  • Table 1: Vodafone Group, revenue summary, Q4 FY17-18
  • Headlines — disjointed
  • Table 2: Vodafone Group, financial highlights, FY17-18
  • The Indian caveat

Spend: automation drive accelerated [p9]

  • Table 3: Vodafone Group, capital expenditure split, FY17-18
  • Table 4: Vodafone capital mix, FY17-19
  • Capex — more tweaking than transformation
  • Table 5: Digital Vodafone initiative, key tenets
  • More opex reductions — under-the-hood automation and analytics
  • Table 6: Vodafone guidance, FY17-19

Guidance: Forward view still fogged up [p12]

GROUP

Deals

Vodafone taps Liberty for a quad-play cable package [p14]

  • Not all holes filled
  • Table 7: Vodafone Europe Region OpCo mobile-wireline broadband user base weighting, at 31 March 2018 (‘000)
  • A mind-bending business and approval case
  • Table 8: Post-buyout synergy plan
  • FTTH vs. cable overhangs on Liberty deal
  • DOCSIS glitches in Germany
  • Ins and outs: DOCSIS 3.1, FTTH, cont’d…
  • Table 9: Talking DOCSIS: the pros and cons of DOCSIS 3.1 upgrades over HFC
  • Table 10: Ownership scenarios: the new Indus Towers

Infratel merger brings creation of Indus Towers Mk II [p22]

  • Loose ends
  • No sale, yet…
  • … but selldowns a possibility as Indus becomes India piggybank
  • More finance than business logic

People

Time to Read [p24]

  • Deceptive calm
  • Learner driver
  • Back to Blighty
  • Personality contest
  • Table 11: People movement highlights

Network

Colao foregrounds microwave and IoT in 5G strategy [p30]

  • Table 12: Backhaul capacity requirements per radio site for operators at two different stages of mobile broadband evolution.
  • Microwave heats up
  • Huawei testing programme looks to have gone well
  • No big bang: 5G on same growth trajectory as 4G
  • Düsseldorf and Milan: a tale of two 5G cities
  • Vorsprung durch 5G testing: Düsseldorf and Aldenhoven working hand in hand

Vodafone gets futuristic with Blade Runner project [p34]

  • ODA and ONAP
  • Table 13: Blade Runner rundown: movers and shakers
  • Mining for network interoperability

Partnerships

Secure Net ‘quietly builds’ EUR160m top-line [p36]

  • Moving onto next phase

Supply chain

Vodafone shifting advertising functions in-house [p37]

  • Table 14: Partner/supplier people movement highlights
  • Hidden agendas

ARCH SUMMIT 2018 SPECIAL REPORT

Far-reaching implications [p40]

An eventful way to bridge the innovation gap [p41]

Where deals happen, fast [p42]

  • EUR250k in cash prizes for the three most outstanding pitches

Tomorrow Street

“Hugely strategic” – Wilson [p44]

Enlightened self-interest for all [p45]

Suppliers: upgrade thyself [p47]

Luxembourg: location, location [p47]

  • At the heart of the Vodafone (procurement) universe

Corporate venturing: an unwelcome distraction [p48]

The first intake [p49]

Accenture: enabling zest [p50]

Tech Mahindra at Arch Summit 2018

TechMNxt meets Tomorrow Street [p51]

  • Startup ecosystems: at the heart of growth strategy
  • TechMNxt and the 3-4-3 Strategy
  • Emerging model: shared-risk, co-creation
  • Co-creation on the ground
  • Table 17: Startup partners accompanying Tech Mahindra to Arch Summit 2018

Vodafone Supplier Awards 2018

VPC tenth anniversary synchronised with Arch Summit [p56]

  • Table 15: Vodafone Supplier Awards, 2013-2017
  • Table 16: Arch Summit: higher-profile Vodafone partners and suppliers

Nokia: in the shadow of the juggernaut [p59]

  • Huawei: keeping it very low key

ContextSpace: profile

Putting out the (GDPR) privacy and compliance fires [p60]

  • Why?
  • The Day After GDPR
  • Don’t fight… embrace
  • Compliance, management, and security modernised in one swoop
  • Privacy-as-Service: multi-department, organisation, community…

Arch Summit presentations

Highlights… [p62]

Standouts: Luxembourg’s local heroes [p62]

Lonely Planet: from domination to digital age desolation [p63]

Ninian Wilson: Procurement as the corporate nexus [p64]

Schellekens: Vodafone preps for work of the future [p65]

Accenture: how can startups and corporates work together? [p67]

EUROPE REGION

Q4 FY17-18

Return of Club Med headaches [p69]

  • Table 18: Vodafone Europe Region, service revenue summary, Q4 FY17-18
  • Continental divides
  • Damage limitation exercise underway at VfIt; VfS hits bump in the autopista
  • A word for the little guys

Italy

Colao calm over possible TI-Open Fiber amalgamation [p72]

  • Out of the loop
  • Group on alert
  • Confidence on delivery

TOBi goes to Italy [p74]

  • Enabler picture still unclear

Spain

VfS dumps Champions League football, gets out popcorn [p75]

  • Game, set, match
  • Crowd trouble

VfS gets serious about SME digital transformation [p76]

  • Sharing and caring
  • SME moves by Telefónica, Orange

AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST, AND ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

Q4 FY17-18

Region avoids India shockwave but falling out of favour [p79]

  • Table 19: Vodafone AMAP Region, service revenue summary, Q4 FY17-18
  • Trouble at the exchange
  • Emerging markets U-turn articulated

Australia — Vodafone Hutchison Australia

VHA follows up 4.9G trials with urban rollouts [p82]

  • Practicalities

India

VfIn claims quick-fire backbone transplant a success [p83]

  • India now outweighs Europe on data

Bangalore-led IoT push looks set after core revamp [p84]

  • Next stage under wraps

New Zealand

VfNZ takes over Farmside in rural push [p85]

  • Good Stanners
  • Table 20: Farmside at a glance

Vodacom Group

Vodacom remains on prowl for fixed-line growth [p86]

  • Another one that got away

Joosub still keen on deals to add beef in Tanzania [p88]

  • VdT ownership tidy-up still on to-do-list
  • Ethiopia move remains a possibility
  • Table 21: Tanzanian operator subscription comparison, June 2017

Vodacom nears video refresh after delay [p89]

Safaricom aims to plug revenue leaks with Amdocs [p90]

  • New digital services?
  • Back-office to the future

FURTHER READING

INDEX

Index

Symbols

3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) 32

5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation 59

5G Automotive Association 59

A

Accenture 28, 50, 56, 58, 67

Accor 77

Acision 29

Aditya Birla Group

– Idea Cellular 7, 8, 16, 22, 64, 79, 80, 84

Africa 8, 17, 27, 28, 78, 79, 81, 86, 87, 89

– Congo 29

– Egypt 10, 66, 80, 81

– Ethiopia 88

– Kenya 66, 86, 87, 89, 90

– Nigeria 87, 89

– North Africa 81

– South Africa 15, 29, 59, 66, 77, 80, 86, 87, 89

– – Competition Commission 22

– Sub-Sahara 81

– Tanzania 81, 86, 88

– Uganda 89

– Zanzibar 88

Agile Software Inc. 11

Altice Group 29

Altran Technologies, SA 58

Amazon.com Inc. 27, 35, 38, 58, 64, 74, 75

– Amazon Web Services 35, 38, 58

Amdocs 58, 90

American Tower Corp. 22, 23

Americas

– Canada 49

– Latin America 87

– USA 15, 17, 23, 25

– – Commerce Department 15

– – government 15

– – States

– – – Califormia 66

– – – New York 63

AppDirect 77

Apple 63, 77, 89

– iOS 36

– iPhone 24, 77

Aricent Inc. 58

Arqiva 29

Asia-Pacific 28, 50, 81, 87

– Australia 18, 28, 29, 45, 59, 79, 82, 83

– – National Broadband Network (NBN) 83

– China 15, 19, 24, 57, 67

– India 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24, 27, 52, 53, 64, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84

– – Department of Telecommunications (DoT) 22

– Malaysia 81

– New Zealand 15, 27, 29, 59, 83, 85

– – Rural Broadband Initiative (RBI) 85

– South Korea 15

AT&T 34, 35, 38, 54

Axiata Group Bhd (TM International)

– India (Idea Cellular, see also Aditya Birla) 7, 8, 16, 22, 23, 64, 79, 80, 81, 84

– Indonedia (PT Excelcomindo Pratama Tbk/XL, see separate) 73

B

Bharti Group 22, 23

– Airtel 22, 23, 24, 87, 88

– – Bharti Infratel 22

– Indus Towers 7, 8, 22, 23, 24, 80

BlackBerry 58

British Broadcasting Corp. (BBC) 54

BT Group 35, 52, 54, 55

Bulldog Communications 29

Bulldog, UK 29

C

CGI Group Inc. 58

Ciena Corp. 58, 83

Cisco Systems 58, 76

Colt Technology Services Group 58

Commercial Bank of Africa 87

CommScope Inc. 58

Communications Test Design, Inc. 58

ContextSpace Solutions Ltd 51, 55, 60, 61

Coriant 58

Cortex Ltd 55

C.P.A. Czech s.r.o. 11

D

DaimlerChrysler

– Mercedes~Benz 56

Dark Fibre Africa 87

Dell 28

Dell Technologies 43, 57, 58

– Dell EMC 57, 58

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu 58

Deutsche Telekom 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 29, 30, 38, 48

– Europe

– – Czech Republic 18, 69

– – Hungary (see Magyar Telekom) 18

– – UK (EE) 54, 76

– Germany 14

– Investments

– – Magyar Telekom (see separate) 18

– – OTE (see separate) 18

– USA 14, 29

du (Emirates Integrated Telecommunications) 35

E

eBay 77

EE (see DT, FT) 54, 76

EfficientIP SAS 55

EMC 28

Enel SpA 72, 73

Ercom SA 55

Ericsson 29, 31, 33, 58, 83, 89, 90

Etisalat 88

Europe 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 25, 27, 29, 36, 38, 50, 54, 59, 68, 69, 70, 75, 79, 81, 83

– Albania 15, 36

– Austria 16

– Cyprus 69

– Czech Republic 9, 14, 15, 69

– – Czech Telecommunications Office (CTU) 69

– Finland 69

– France 34, 55, 71, 72

– Germany 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 30, 33, 35, 36, 38, 54, 69, 70, 73, 77

– – ARD 70

– – Länder

– – – Baden-Württemberg (Stuttgart) 14

– – – Bavaria (Munich) 49, 54

– – – Hesse (Wiesbaden) 14

– – – North Rhine-Westphalia (Düsseldorf) 30, 33

– Greece 10, 15, 18, 28, 36, 69, 70

– Hungary 9, 15, 18, 69

– Ireland 15, 36, 70

– Italy 6, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 26, 28, 32, 33, 36, 37, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77

– – Cassa Depositi e Prestiti 72

– Luxembourg 40, 41, 43, 44, 47, 50, 51, 57, 62

– Malta 15

– Netherlands 10, 15, 18, 27, 71, 73, 76

– Portugal 10, 15, 19, 36, 70

– Romania 9, 14, 15, 18, 29, 32, 36, 70

– Spain 6, 10, 12, 15, 17, 18, 27, 36, 69, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76, 77

– – Comision Nacional de los Mercados y la Competencia 75

– Sweden 31, 76

– Turkey 10, 29, 32, 36, 80, 81, 84

– United Kingdom (UK) 6, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, 26, 27, 29, 32, 36, 52, 54, 55, 69, 70, 72, 74, 76, 77

European Union 17, 18, 27, 60, 69, 70, 71

– European Commission 17, 69

Expeto 49

F

Facebook 74, 84

– WhatsApp 86

FixStream Inc. 52, 55

Formula One 37, 56, 75

G

Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) 59

Gemalto NV 57, 58

Ghana Telecom

– Onetouch 58

Goldman Sachs 16

Google 58, 63, 74, 77

– Android 36

– Android Market 77

Groupon Inc. 14

GSM Association (GSMA) 87

– Mobile World Congress 40

H

HMY Group 58

Hogg Robinson Group

– HRG Worldwide 57, 58

Home Box Office 75

Huawei Technologies 19, 29, 32, 33, 34, 46, 56, 57, 58, 59, 82, 83

Hutchison Whampoa

– Vodafone Hutchison Australia Pty Ltd (VHA, (see Vodafone) 29, 79, 82, 83

I

IBM 74

Iliad 12, 69, 71, 73

Indus Towers 7, 8, 22, 23, 24, 80

Infosys Technologies 35

Invitation Digital 14

ITV 54

J

Juniper Networks 58

K

Kathrein-Werke 58

Kenya Commercial Bank 87

KPMG International 28, 58

L

LG Electronics 58

Liberty 56

Liberty Global 6, 14, 19, 24, 56, 71

– UPC Germany GmbH

– – Unitymedia GmbH 14, 17, 19, 71

– Virgin Media 27

– Ziggo 73

Local Backhaul Networks, LLC 49

M

Mace Productions 58

machineOS Ltd 55

Magyar Telekom (see DT) 18

Mahindra Group

– Tech Mahindra 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58, 60

Market segments

– Fixed broadband 75, 83

– Mobile broadband 31, 69

– Mobile data 69, 77, 88

– Mobile virtual network (MVNA/MVNE/MVNO) 32, 83

– M-payment 45

– Network-sharing 19

– Outsourcing 23

– Small- to medium-size enterprise (SME/SMB) 76, 77

– Value-added services (VAS) 14

– Voice 17, 69, 74, 76, 77, 85

Metroweb S.p.A. 73

Microsoft 35, 58, 76, 77

– Office 77

– Office 365 77

– Skype 35

Middle East 27, 81

– Dubai 35, 89

– Egypt 10, 66, 80, 81

– Iran 15

– Israel 52, 55

Millicom International Cellular 88

– MIC Tanzania Limited (tiGO/ Mobitel/Buzz) 87, 88

– Tigo Ghana 87, 88

Mirambo Ltd 88

Morgan Stanley 16

Motorola Mobility Holdings Inc. 76

N

Naspers Limited (MIH Group) 89

National Audit Office 76

NCR 27

Neotel (Pty) Ltd (SNO Telecommunications, see also Reliance) 86

Netflix Inc. 75, 89

Nokia 27, 28, 33, 46, 56, 57, 58, 59, 84

Nokia Solutions & Networks 28

NTT 35, 58

– Dimension Data 58

O

Old St Labs 49

Open Network Automation Platform 34

Oracle 38

Orange

– Orange 35, 50, 55, 71, 75, 76, 77

– Spain 71, 75, 76, 77

– UK (see EE) 54, 76

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 69

OTE (Hellenic Telecom. Org. SA, see DT) 18

P

Permira

– Genesys Telecommunications Labs 76

PGG Wrightson Limited 85

Power HF Co., Ltd 58

Providence Equity Partners 22

PT Excelcomindo Pratama Tbk (XL) 73

PwC 58

R

RichWeb Media Ltd

– Broadband Expert 20

Riverbed Technology 35

Robey Warshaw 16

S

Safaricom 28, 81, 86, 87, 89, 90

– M-PESA 86, 89, 90

Safran Group 57, 58

– Morpho 58

Samsung 27, 46

SAP 58

SEMrush 14

SERCOMM Corp. 57, 58

SES 62

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA 57, 58

Sky Network Television 28, 85

Slaughter and May 16

Smart Telecom 88

Sprint Nextel 29

STMicroelecronics 58

Swisscom

– Fastweb 71

T

TalkTalk Telecom Group plc 54

Tata Group 27, 58

– Tata Communications 27

– – Neotel (see separate listing) 86

– Tata Consultancy Services 58

TCL Communication 58

TCL Communications

– TCT 58

Technology

– 2.5G 82

– 2G 82

– – GSM 87

– 3G

– – Evolved HSPA (HSPA+/I-HSPA)

– – – MIMO 30, 33, 82

– 4G 10, 30, 32, 33, 49, 59, 82

– – Long Term Evolution (LTE) 15, 76

– 5G 10, 12, 15, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 52, 59, 82

– AI 40, 43, 54, 55, 63, 65, 66, 67

– Cloud computing 11, 12, 14, 25, 27, 33, 34, 35, 38, 54, 55, 58, 60, 61, 76, 77, 84

– DSL 33, 85

– EPON 20

– Ethernet 20

– Fibre 15, 18, 19, 20, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 71, 72, 73, 77, 83, 85, 86, 87

– – FTTP 72, 73

– FTTH 15, 19, 20, 86, 87

– GPON 20

– IoT 40, 44, 49, 52, 53, 59

– IP 32, 54, 55, 76, 84

– Linux 34, 54

– Narrow Band Internet of Things (NB-IoT) 33

– NGN 15

– NOC 90

– Open-source 54

– PC 14, 28, 40, 41

– R&D 47

– RF 32

– SIM 74, 77

– SIP 76

– Smartphone 15, 33, 36, 43, 66

– SMS 69, 87

– Spectrum 12, 30, 31, 33, 82, 88

– – 700 MHz 12, 82

– – 800 MHz 33

– – 850 MHz 82

– – 900 MHz 82, 88

– – 1800 MHz 82

– – 2100 MHz 82

– – 2500 MHz 82

– – Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) 35, 38

– Tablet 33, 77

– TDM 76

– ULL 18

– VDSL 15

– VoIP 85

– W-LAN 49, 89

Technoport SA 40

Telecom Infra Project 54

Telecom Italia 9, 35, 71, 72, 73

– Telecom Italia Mobile 35

Telefónica Group 29, 48, 54, 69, 75, 76, 77

– Europe 54

– – Czech Republic 69

– – España 75, 76

– – UK 29, 54

– Movistar 75, 77

Telekom Malaysia 28

TeleManagement Forum

– TM Forum 34

Telenor ASA 87

Telepizza 27

Teleste 69

– Cableway 69

Time Warner

– CNN 87

Tinizine Ltd

– Azoomee 49

Twenty-First Century Fox

– Sky

– – Sky Italia 73

U

UBS 16

UEFA 75

– Champions League 75

Unilever 26, 28

UPC 14, 16, 29

V

Verizon Communications 17, 24, 35, 38

– Verizon Wireless 16, 17, 24

Vivendi 72

Vodacom Group 10, 15, 28, 29, 79, 80, 81, 86, 87, 88, 89

– Congo 29

– Ex-executives

– – Mare, Dietlof 29, 87

– Gateway Communications 84

– Group 28, 79, 80, 81, 86, 88, 89

– South Africa 15, 29, 59, 66, 77, 80, 86, 87, 89

– Tanzania 29, 81, 86, 87, 88

– Vodacom Business 28

Vodafone

– Africa, Middle East, and Asia Pacific Region (AMAP) 7, 8, 10, 17, 28, 78, 79, 80, 81

– – Africa 8, 17, 27, 28, 78, 79, 81, 86, 87, 89

– – Asia 28, 50, 81, 87

– – Australia 18, 28, 29, 59, 79, 82, 83

– – – VHA Pty. Ltd (see Hutchison Whampoa) 29, 79, 82, 83

– – Egypt 10, 66, 80, 81

– – Ghana 58

– – India 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24, 27, 52, 53, 64, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84

– – – Indus Towers 7, 8, 22, 23, 24, 80

– – Kenya (see Safaricom) 28, 66, 81, 86, 87, 89, 90

– – Middle East 27, 81

– – New Zealand 15, 27, 28, 29, 59, 81, 83, 85

– – Pacific 28

– – Qatar (see Vodafone and Qatar Foundation and Vodafone Qatar) 29, 81

– – South Africa (see Vodacom) 10, 15, 28, 29, 59, 66, 77, 79, 80, 81, 86, 87, 88, 89

– – Turkey 10, 29, 32, 36, 80, 81, 84

– Africa, Middle East, and Asia-Pacific Region (AMAP)

– – New Zealand

– – – BayCity Communications (Farmside) 85

– Board of Directors

– – Kleisterlee, Gerard 26

– Europe Region 7, 14, 15, 27, 29, 36, 68, 69, 70, 81, 83

– – Albania 15, 28, 36

– – Czech Republic 9, 14, 15, 18, 28, 69

– – Germany 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 28, 30, 33, 35, 36, 38, 69, 70, 71, 73, 77, 79

– – – KDG Holding GmbH (Kabel Deutschland) 14, 17, 18, 19, 69, 70

– – Greece 10, 15, 18, 28, 36, 69, 70

– – Hungary 9, 14, 15, 18, 28, 69

– – Ireland 15, 29, 36, 70

– – Italy 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 26, 28, 32, 33, 36, 37, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 79, 84

– – Malta 15, 27, 28, 66

– – Netherlands 8, 10, 15, 18, 71, 73, 76

– – – VodafoneZiggo 8, 10, 15, 16, 18, 73, 76

– – Portugal 10, 15, 19, 36, 70

– – Romania 9, 14, 15, 18, 29, 32, 36, 70

– – Spain 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 27, 29, 36, 69, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76, 77, 79

– – – Grupo Corporativo Ono (ONO) 16, 17, 18

– – UK 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 26, 27, 29, 32, 36, 38, 52, 54, 55, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 76, 77, 79

– – – Cornerstone Telecommunications Infrastructure Ltd 29

– Executives

– – Baumgarten, Hendrik 28

– – Coimbra, António 29, 75

– – Colao, Vittorio 6, 8, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 41, 44, 71, 72, 73, 74, 81, 92

– – Cooper, Richard 27

– – Cramer, Warrick 41, 45, 62

– – Della Valle, Margherita 26, 27

– – Dvorak, Petr 28

– – Essam, Ahmed 71

– – Hernandez, Sonia 28, 66

– – Johnson, Paul 27

– – Joosub, Shameel 86, 88, 89

– – Kaushal, Nitu 27

– – Lakuriqi, Jonida 28

– – Liebenberg, Deon 28

– – Lloyd, Dan 79

– – Meijer, Iris 27

– – Migliarina, Giorgio 28

– – Millroy, Kevin 82

– – Moaz, Mohamed 28

– – Nelson, Amanda 28

– – Paris, Jason 27

– – Pasquali, Gianluca 28

– – Popa, Tiberius 29

– – Read, Nick 6, 17, 23, 24, 27, 44, 71, 81

– – Ribas, Santi 27

– – Ripepi, Alberto 27

– – Roberts, Rob 27

– – Saad, John 81

– – Schellekens, Ronald 65

– – Schultz, Detlef 56

– – Shaw, Steve 28

– – Spink, Martin 27

– – Stanners, Russell 28, 85

– – Streichert, Till 88

– – Timuray, Serpil 37

– – Valente, Felice 28

– – Vishant, Vora 84

– – Wibergh, Johan 31

– – Williams, Matt 28

– – Wilson, Ninian 41, 64

– Ex-executives

– – Combes, Michel 29

– – Gent, Christopher 25

– – Handley, Chris 29

– – Sarin, Arun 25, 26

– – Solomon, Liliana 29

– Group 7, 8, 10, 24, 27, 34, 35, 38, 44, 53, 59, 92

– – Headquarters 77

– – Partner Markets 27, 40

– – – Belgium (Proximus) 43

– – – Kenya (Safaricom) 28, 81, 86, 87, 89, 90

– – – United Arab Emirates (du) 35

– – R&D

– – – Competence Centre 74

– – Strategy

– – – Supermobile 25

– – Vodafone Carrier Services 27

– – Vodafone Global Enterprise (VGE) 27, 29

– – Vodafone Procurement Company (VPC) 27, 28, 40, 41, 42, 44, 47, 56, 57, 59, 64, 66

– – – Tomorrow Street 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67

– – – Vodafone Roaming Services 27

– Investments & Associates

– – Americas (see Verizon Wireless) 16, 17, 24

– Products

– – Business 84

– – Europe 15, 70

– – Liberty (Malta) 6, 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 71

– – live! 34

– – My Vodafone 37, 74

– – One 75

– – Red 36, 76, 77, 89

– – Terminals

– – – 340 15

– – V by Vodafone 14

– – Vodafone Digital Marketplace 77

– Project Spring 25, 58, 81, 83

Vodafone Qatar Q.S.C. 29, 81

W

Webhelp SAS 58

World Wide Technology, Inc. 58

WPP 37, 57, 58

X

Xiaomi Inc. 58

Z

ZTE Corp. 15